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IV Cannulation,Catheters Site Care and Complication

IV Cannulation site care and complication
  • The cannula site should be inspected before use
  • To ensure the patency,the cannula should be flushed q shift at least
  • Dressing should be change every day without manipulating the insertion site if Tegadrum dressing is not applied
  • Tegaderm dressing remains there for 3 days
  • The cannula should be removed when it is no longer required or there is evidence of  complication.
1.Infilteration
When a nonvesicant solution or medication enters the surrounding subcutaneous tissue
Cause:Cannula dislodgement or perforation of wall of vein
Sign and symptoms:Edema,Leakage of I/V fluid,discomfort,fluid flow becomes slow or ceased,sometimes absence of blood backflow.

2.Extravasation:
It is similar to infiltration,with an advertent administration of vesicant solution or medication into the surrounding tissue,e.g chemotherapeutic agent,dopamine,calcium preparations.this can lead to blisters,inflammation,necrosis of tissues
S/S:Similar to infiltration

3.Phelebitis
Inflammation of a vein related to a chemical or mechanical irritation or both
Cause:Risk of phlebitis increases with the length of time I/V line is in place,site of cannula inserted,and introducation of micro-organisms at the time of insertion.
S/S:Redness,warm area,pain and tenderness
Preventive care:To avoid phlebitis use strict aseptic techniques,rotate I/V site every  72 hours as per agency/hospital policy or as needed
Daily dress the site or as needed

4.Thrombophlebitis:
Refers to the presence of a clot plus inflammation in the vein
S/S:Localized pain,redness,warmth and swelling around the insertion site followed by immobility.flow rate gets sluggish,fever,malaise etc
Preventive care:It can be prevented by avoiding trauma to the vein and frequent observation of I/V site.

5.Hematoma:It results when blood leaks into tissues surrounding the I/V insertion site.
S/S:Swelling and leakage of blood at the site
Care:Reomove needle or cannula,Apply pressure with a sterile dressing,ice compressor,later on warm compressors.

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