27 December 2012

IV Cannulation,Catheters Site Care and Complication

IV Cannulation site care and complication
  • The cannula site should be inspected before use
  • To ensure the patency,the cannula should be flushed q shift at least
  • Dressing should be change every day without manipulating the insertion site if Tegadrum dressing is not applied
  • Tegaderm dressing remains there for 3 days
  • The cannula should be removed when it is no longer required or there is evidence of  complication.
When a nonvesicant solution or medication enters the surrounding subcutaneous tissue
Cause:Cannula dislodgement or perforation of wall of vein
Sign and symptoms:Edema,Leakage of I/V fluid,discomfort,fluid flow becomes slow or ceased,sometimes absence of blood backflow.

It is similar to infiltration,with an advertent administration of vesicant solution or medication into the surrounding tissue,e.g chemotherapeutic agent,dopamine,calcium preparations.this can lead to blisters,inflammation,necrosis of tissues
S/S:Similar to infiltration

Inflammation of a vein related to a chemical or mechanical irritation or both
Cause:Risk of phlebitis increases with the length of time I/V line is in place,site of cannula inserted,and introducation of micro-organisms at the time of insertion.
S/S:Redness,warm area,pain and tenderness
Preventive care:To avoid phlebitis use strict aseptic techniques,rotate I/V site every  72 hours as per agency/hospital policy or as needed
Daily dress the site or as needed

Refers to the presence of a clot plus inflammation in the vein
S/S:Localized pain,redness,warmth and swelling around the insertion site followed by immobility.flow rate gets sluggish,fever,malaise etc
Preventive care:It can be prevented by avoiding trauma to the vein and frequent observation of I/V site.

5.Hematoma:It results when blood leaks into tissues surrounding the I/V insertion site.
S/S:Swelling and leakage of blood at the site
Care:Reomove needle or cannula,Apply pressure with a sterile dressing,ice compressor,later on warm compressors.